PS: I really don't like the term para-academic, which implies someone who helps out or supports an academic. Perhaps a better term would be non-academic researcher.
You're right, zharkov, that the terminology is imprecise and could use some work. I decided on "para-academic" as a useful catchall. That said, "non-academic researcher" sounds a lot like an industry/private sector person to me, whereas the people I'm talking about tend to work for academic institutions, just not on the tenure track. But anyway, point taken.
Shamu, I understand what you're saying, but I think that we're still talking past each other. The other commenters have all pointed out plenty of non-academic jobs that require PhDs, regardless of the fact that it is universally agreed that doctoral programs do not provide training for such jobs. I don't expect those programs to do so, but I do expect them to be realistic about the fact that their graduates may nevertheless be seeking these positions. I'm not going to engage you further on this issue.
Thanks to everyone for your advice and criticism -- it's been quite useful, and I'll keep it in mind as I continue to plan my next move!